Design a T2DM-Meal Plan by Enhancing Current Practice using Linear Programming

Hanan Abdul Karim, Noraini Noordin, Noor Zaini Yasok


Changing lifestyles, ignorance of nutritional knowledge and low health consciousness among Malaysians have promoted the alarming increase of diabetes cases today.  Currently, an optimal palatable meal for T2DM-affected individuals is not achievable because dieticians have to perform tedious manual calculations; differentiated views on meal plan; and limited consultation time.  In addition, none of the few researches on T2DM-meal planning have applied exchange lists currently practiced by dietitians.  To provide a mathematical solution to the problem, this research has used linear programming to develop a meal plan as it has the ability to find the best optimal solution when all the constraints are satisfied, and also as an alternative to the current practices.  A Malaysian food exchange list for T2DM-affected individuals based on available information in the Atlas was created for this purpose.  Adapting the current standard dietitian practice and available guidelines has also made design of T2DM-meals more direct and logical with the production of two different models, Exchange Planner and Meal Planner.  These models can translate dietary recommendations into actual food exchange plans as well as suggest the amount of food intakes for each meal or snack.  In conclusion, the resultant meal plans have successfully minimized energy intakes and satisfied specified restrictions which may simultaneously improve glycaemic control and lessen risk of complications for individuals with T2DM.


Atlas; exchange list; Exchange Planner; Meal Planner; T2DM

Full Text:



American Association of Diabetes Educators. (2009). Special considerations in the management and education of older persons with diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 35(Supplement 3), 60S-63S. doi: 10.1177/0145721709349592

American Diabetes Association. (2013). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2013. Diabetes Care, 36(Supplement 1), S11-S66.

American Diabetes Association. (2014). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2014. Diabetes Care, 37(Supplement 1), S14-S80.

Bader, A., et al. (2013). Nutritional education through internet-delivered menu plans among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Pilot study. JMIR Research Protocols, 2(2), e41. doi: 10.2196/resprot.2525

Bawadi, H. A., & Al-Sahawneh, S. A. (2008). Developing a meal-planning exchange list for traditional dishes in Jordan. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(5), 840-846. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.02.016

Brown, M. D., et al. (2001). Controlling calories—the simple approach. Diabetes Spectrum, 14(2), 110-112. doi: 10.2337/diaspect.14.2.110

Coates, P., & Flannery, T. (2010). Exercise your way to health: Type 2 diabetes: Exercise plans to improve your life. London, United Kingdom: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.

Dotson, K. (2011). United States Patent No. 7,908,181 B2.

Hamzah, P., et al. (2011). Two-stage LP diet model for Malay households. Paper presented at the Humanities, Science and Engineering (CHUSER), 2011 IEEE Colloquium.

International Diabetes Federation. (2013). IDF Diabetes Atlas (6th ed.). Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation.

Lim, C. J., et al. (2010). Level of nutritional knowledge and health awareness among diabetes mellitus patients at Cheras Health Clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana, 39(3), 505-511.

Maillot, M., et al. (2010). Individual diet modeling translates nutrient recommendations into realistic and individual-specific food choices. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(2), 421-430. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28426

Malaysian Dietitian's Association. (2013). Medical nutrition therapy guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus (C. S. Tan & H. Kaur Eds. 2nd ed.): Ministry of Health, Malaysia

Masset, G., et al. (2009). Diet optimization methods can help translate dietary guidelines into a cancer prevention food plan. The Journal of Nutrition, 139(8), 1541-1548. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.104398

MedicineNet. (2013). Diabetes Guide - Introduction. Retrieved Jul 24 2015, 2015

Ministry of Health, Malaysia. (2009). Clinical practice guidelines: Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (4th ed.). Putrajaya.

Ministry of Health, Malaysia. (2010). Malaysian dietary guidelines (2nd ed.). Malaysia: National Coordinating Committe on Food and Nutrition.

Ministry of Health, Malaysia. (2015). Clinical practice guidelines: Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (5th ed.). Putrajaya.

Mustapha, F. I., & Azmi, S. (2013). National diabetes registry report (Vol. 1, 2009-2012). Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

Norimah, A. K., et al. (2010). Messages of the newly proposed Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG): Do adults in Kuala Lumpur understand them? Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 16(1), 113-123.

Shahar, S., et al. (2012). Development and analysis of acceptance of a nutrition education package among a rural elderly population: An action research study. BMC Geriatrics, 12, 24. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-12-24

Shahar, S., et al. (2009). Atlas Makanan: Saiz Pertukaran dan Porsi (2nd. ed.). Kuala Lumpur: MDC Publisher Sdn Bhd.

Sharkawi, I., et al.(2014). Healthy eating: The preventive factors among Malaysians. Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 2(4), 257-261. doi: 10.7763/JOEBM.2014.V2.135

Soden, P. M., & Fletcher, L. R. (1992). Modifying diets to satisfy nutritional requirements using linear programming. British Journal of Nutrition, 68(03), 565-572. doi: 10.1079/BJN19920115

Swift, C. S. (2012). Promoting healthful eating patterns among patients with diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 25(2), 67-68. doi: 10.2337/diaspect.25.2.67


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Hanan Abdul Karim, Noraini Noordin, Noor Zaini Yasok

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis