A Case Study of Depression Disorder Among Registered Patients of Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Kedah

  • Sharir Aizat Kamaruddin Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis Branch, Arau Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  • Nur Iwani Zahari Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis Branch, Arau Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  • Khairul Naim Abd Aziz Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis Branch, Arau Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Akmal Roslani Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis Branch, Arau Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  • Nurhana Athirah Ahmad Helmi Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis Branch, Arau Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
Keywords: Depression, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Age, Gender, Ethnic

Abstract

Depression is a common chronic disorder that affects individual functioning and contributes to the increasing number of suicide rates. At present, the analysis of depression cases is carried out on a global scale and the trend data for the local scale was found to be baffling. Solving this problem would allow government and non-government bodies to understand the distribution of depression cases in the state of Kedah. This research aims to investigate the distribution of depression cases in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Kedah. The age, gender, and ethnicity of depression patients referred to this hospital were classified as secondary data that were the basis of this analysis. The epidemiologic data of depression applied for this analysis were collected from the year 2014 until 2017. This research found that older patients (age 40 years old and above) suffering the depression disorder more than the youths (age below 40 years old). For gender, female patients are found to be diagnosed with depression disorder higher than male patients. It was also found that the percentage of depression among Malays shows higher rates of depression compared to other races. The findings of this research can be used as baseline information for concern parties to monitor and formulate strategies and policies to promote good health and wellbeing to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.  

References

Abi-Jaoude, E., Naylor, K. T., & Pignatiello, A. (2020). Smartphones, social media use and youth mental health. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 192(6), E136-E141. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.190434
Bernama. (2017). 93 Per Cent of Women Seeking NCWO's Help Suffer From Depression - Mas Ermieyati. Kuala Lumpur: Bernama News.
Gersak, K., Gersak, Z. M., & Turcin, A. (2018). Reproductive aging: Perimenopause and Psychopathological symptoms. Sex Hormones in Neurodegenerative Processes and Diseases. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.74159
Jouini, L. (2018). Intercultural aspects of depression: Feelings and thoughts of low self-esteem, guilt, persecution and prejudice. https://doi.org/10.26226/morressier.5a6ef3ebd462b80290b57ff8
Kader Maideen, S. F., Mohd. Sidik, S., Rampal, L., & Mukhtar, F. (2014). Prevalence, associated factors and predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor, Malaysia. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e95395. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095395
Kaur, J., Cheong, S. M., Mahadir Naidu, B., Kaur, G., Manickam, M. A., Mat Noor, M., Ibrahim, N., & Rosman, A. (2014). Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 26(5_suppl), 53S-62S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539514544356
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., Rush, A. J., Walters, E. E., & Wang, P. S. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder. JAMA, 289(23), 3095. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.23.3095
Knoff, W. F. (1975). Depression: A historical overview. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 35(1), 41-46. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01248425
Kuria, M. W., Ndetei, D. M., Obot, I. S., Khasakhala, L. I., Bagaka, B. M., Mbugua, M. N., & Kamau, J. (2012). The association between alcohol dependence and depression before and after treatment for alcohol dependence. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/482802
Li, H., Ge, S., Greene, B., & Dunbar-Jacob, J. (2019). Depression in the context of chronic diseases in the United States and China. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 6(1), 117-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2018.11.007
Marcus, M., Yasamy, M. T., Van Ommeren, M. V., Chisholm, D., & Saxena, S. (2012). Depression: A global public health concern. PsycEXTRA Dataset. https://doi.org/10.1037/e517532013-004
McBeth, J., Lacey, R. J., & Wilkie, R. (2014). Predictors of new-onset widespread pain in older adults: Results from a population-based prospective cohort study in the UK. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 66(3), 757-767. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.38284
Medicine, I. O., National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Board on Children; Youth; and Families, & Committee on Depression; Parenting Practices; and the Healthy Development of Children. (2009). Depression in parents, parenting, and children: Opportunities to improve identification, treatment, and prevention. National Academies Press.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Depression Basics. Retrieved 25 October 2018, from National Institute of Mental Health: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression/depressionbasics-508-
O’Neil, A., Berk, M., Itsiopoulos, C., Castle, D., Opie, R., Pizzinga, J., Brazionis, L., Hodge, A., Mihalopoulos, C., Chatterton, M. L., Dean, O. M., & Jacka, F. N. (2013). A randomised, controlled trial of a dietary intervention for adults with major depression (the “SMILES” trial): Study protocol. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-13-114
Patten, S. B., Williams, J. V., Lavorato, D. H., Wang, J. L., Bulloch, A. G., & Sajobi, T. (2016). The association between major depression prevalence and sex becomes weaker with age. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51(2), 203-210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-015- 1166-3
Rashid, A., & Tahir, I. (2014). The prevalence and predictors of severe depression among the elderly in Malaysia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 30(1), 69-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10823- 014-9248-3
Ryba, M. M., & Hopko, D. R. (2012). Gender differences in depression: Assessing Mediational effects of overt behaviors and environmental reward through daily diary monitoring. Depression Research and Treatment, 2012, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/865679
Tan, K. L., & Yadav, H. (2012). Depression among the urban poor in peninsular Malaysia: A community based cross-sectional study. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(1), 121-127. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105311433908
Wassink-Vossen, S., Collard, R., Hiles, S., Oude Voshaar, R., & Naarding, P. (2018). The reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression: Does age matter? European Psychiatry, 51, 9-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.12.029
Wilson, M. D. (2014). Depression. Basics in Adolescent Medicine, 381-390. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814329545_0036
Wong S. Y., Lua P. L. (2011). Anxiety and depressive symptoms among communities in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia: a rural exploration. Malays. J. Psychiatry 20 59–71
World Health Organization. (2018). Depression. Retrieved 31 January 2019, from World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
Yeoh, S. H., Tam, C. L., Wong, C. P., & Bonn, G. (2017). Examining depressive symptoms and their predictors in Malaysia: Stress, locus of control, and occupation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01411
Yusoff, F., Saari, R., Naidu, B. M., Ahmad, N. A., Omar, A., & Aris, T. (2014). Methodology of the national school-based health survey in Malaysia, 2012. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 26(5_suppl), 9S-17S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539514542424
Published
2020-07-28