Coach Effectiveness and Transformational Leadership in Sport: The Effects of Gender and Athlete Experience
AbstractResearch has demonstrated the potential importance of transformational leadership and perceived effectiveness of sport coaches for athlete development. Further, coach/athlete gender and athlete sport experience may influence athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s effectiveness. Researchers to date have not investigated the potential impact of coach/athlete gender and athlete sport experience on athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s transformational leadership, or replicated the findings of Kavussanu et. al. (2008). Thus, this research explored the coaching efficacy model and transformational leadership theory as were the guiding frameworks. Male (n = 150) and female (n = 147) athletes from team (football [n = 49], hockey [n = 53], rugby [n = 51]) and individual (badminton [n = 50], swimming [n = 45], gymnastics [n = 49]) sports completed the coaching effectiveness scale and the differentiated transformational leadership inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed (a) athlete sport experience did not predict athletes’ perceptions of coach effectiveness or transformational leadership, (b) female athletes perceived their coaches to be more effective on all dimensions of coach effectiveness and higher on all dimensions of transformational leadership than male athletes, and (c) coaches were perceived more effective in motivation effectiveness and higher on all dimensions of transformational leadership when they were of the opposite gender to athletes than when gender matched between coach and athlete. In conclusion, coach and athlete gender may have important implications for athletes’ perceptions of transformational leadership and coach effectiveness in team and individual sports.
Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 199–218. doi:10.1016/1048-9843(95)90035-7
Boardley, I. D., Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2008). Athletes ’ Perceptions of Coaching Effectiveness and Athlete-Related Outcomes in Rugby Union: An Investigation Based on the Coaching Efficacy Model. The sport Psychologist, 22, 269–287. Human Kinetics, Inc
Boardley, I. D., Jackson, B., & Simmons, A. (2015). Changes in task self-efficacy and emotion across competitive performances in golf. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(4), 393-409.
Charbonneau, D., Barling, J., & Kelloway, E. K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation 1. Journal of applied social psychology, 31(7), 1521-1534.
Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International journal of sports science & coaching, 4(3), 307-323.
Feltz, D. L., Chase, M. A., Moritz, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (1999). A Conceptual Model of Coaching Efficacy: Preliminary Investigation and Instrument Development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91 (4), 765–776.
Kavussanu, M., Boardley, I. D., Jutkiewicz, N., Vincent, S., & Ring, C. (2008). Coaching efficacy and coaching effectiveness: Examining their predictors and comparing coaches’ and athletes’ reports. The Sport Psychologist, 22(4), 383-404.
Kline, P. (1999). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Kassim, A. F. M., & Boardley, I. D. (2018). Athlete perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-level outcomes in team and individual sports: a cross-cultural investigation. The Sport Psychologist, 32(3), 189-198.
Myers, N. D., Feltz, D. L., Maier, K. S., Wolfe, E. W., & Reckase, M. D. (n.d.) (2006) Athletes’ Evaluations of Their Head Coach's Coaching Competency. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77:1, 111-121 37–41.
Nunally, J.C., (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Saybani, H., Yusof, A., Soon, C., Hassan, A., & Zardoshtian, S. (2013). Athletes’ satisfaction as mediator of transformational leadership behaviors of coaches and football players’ sport commitment relationship. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21(10), 1475-1483.
Tovell, A., & Gravelle, F. (2009). The importance of transformational leadership in the quest for group cohesion: The case of a university-level varsity football program. International Journal of Sport Management Recreation & Tourism, 3, 18-33.
Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmad Fikri Mohd Kassim, Siti Hasmah Hassan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.