Decolourization of Turqoise Blue (Remazol Blue BB) Dye by Immobilized Penicillium sp. into Sodium-Alginate-Sulfate Beads


  • Nor Atikah Husna Ahmad Nasir Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis, Kampus Arau
  • Noor Farazian Zafira Che Pa Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis, Kampus Arau
  • Muhammad Akmal Roslani Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis, Kampus Arau
  • Rohayu Ramli Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis, Kampus Arau
  • Nor Azimah Mohd Zain Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia



immobilized cells, free cells, decolourization, dyes, laccase


Turqoise blue (Remazol Blue BB) is a type of common dye which is constantly discharged from industriesinto the water bodies without proper treatment. This dye could affect aquatic and human life due to itstoxicity. Existing methods to overcome this issue are too expensive and not eco-friendly. Alternatively, thisstudy was conducted by immobilizing Penicillium sp. into sodium-alginate-sulfate beads (IC) to decolorizethe turquoise blue dye at 10 ppm. The percentage of dye decolourization, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)removal and laccase of IC and free cells were analysed throughout this study. IC successfully decolourizeddyes up to 72.83%, meanwhile, free cells could only decolourized dyes up to 56.59%. In addition, CODremoval by IC cell is 31.92% higher compared to free cell. For laccase activity, IC is higher compared tofree cells up to 30%. Based on higher decolourization, enzymatic activity and COD removal, IC has apotential to be an alternative to decolourize dyes better than free cells. Keywords: immobilized cells, free cells, decolourization, dyes, laccase


Akpor, O. B. (2018). Dye Decolouration by Immobilized and Free Bacterial Cells at Different Glucose Concentration. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences (12), 33-40
Al-Fawwaz, A. T., & Abdullah, M. (2016). Decolorization of Methylene Blue and Malachite Green by Immobilized Desmodesmus Sp. Isolated from North Jordan. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 7(2), 95.
Bilal, M., & Asgher, M. (2015). Dye Decolorization And Detoxification Potential of Ca-Alginate Beads Immobilized Manganese Peroxidase. BMC Biotechnology, 15(1), 111.
Chen, K. C., Wu, J. Y., Liou, D. J., Hwang, S. J. (2003). Decolorization Of Textile Dyes by Newly Isolated Bacterial Strains. Journal of Biotechnology 101, 57–68.
Coelho, L. M., Rezende, H. C., Coelho, L. M., de Sousa, P. A., Melo, D. F., & Coelho, N. M. (2015). Bioremediation of Polluted Waters Using Microorganisms. In Advances in Bioremediation of Wastewater and Polluted Soil. InTech.DOI:10.5772/60770
Devi, N. K. D and Nagamani, A. S. S. (2018). Immobilization and Estimation of Activity Of Yeast Cells By Entrapment Technique Using Different Matrices. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 9(7): 3094-3099.
Fu, Y., & Viraraghavan, T. (2001). Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review. Bioresource technology, 79(3), 251-262.
Gao, H., Khera, E., Lee, J. K., & Wen, F. (2016). Immobilization of Multi-Biocatalysts In Alginate Beads For Cofactor Regeneration And Improved Reusability. Journal of visualized experiments: JoVE, (110).
Jaishankar, M., Mathew, B. B., Shah, M. S., Murthy, K. T. P., & Gowda, K. R. S. (2014). Biosorption Of Few Heavy Metal Ions Using Agricultural Wastes. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 2(1), 1-6.
Joshi, B., Kabariya, K., Nakrani, S., Khan, A., Parabia, F. M., Doshi, H. V., & Thakur, M. C. (2013). Biodegradation of Turquoise Blue Dye by Bacillus Megaterium Isolated From Industrial Effluent. American J Environ Protec, 1(2), 41-46.
Kadam, A. A., Telke, A. A., Jagtap, S. S., & Govindwar, S. P. (2011). Decolorization Of Adsorbed Textile Dyes by Developed Consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 under solid state fermentation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189(1-2), 486-494.
Murugesan, K., Nam, I. H., Kim, Y. M., & Chang, Y. S. (2007). Decolorization of reactive dyes by a thermostable laccase produced by Ganoderma lucidum in solid state culture. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 40(7), 1662-1672.
Nasir, N. A. H. A., Asri, N. F. S. M., Zain, N. A. M., Suhaimi, M. S., & Idris, A. (2013). Textile Effluent Discoloration by Immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium into PVA-alginate-sulfate beads. Jurnal Teknologi, 62(2).
Nasir, N. A. H. A., Hang, N. Z., Zain, N. A. M., & Suhaimi, M. S. (2017). Statistical Analysis of Immobilized Phanerochaete Chrysosporium In PVA–Alginate–Sulfate Beads For Textile Wastewater Treatment. Desalination and Water Treatment, 67, 381-388.
Rajendran, R., Sundaram, S. K., Yasodha, K., & Umamaheswari, K. (2012). Comparison of Fungal Laccase Production on Different Solid Substrates, Immobilization And Its Decolorization Potential On Synthetic Textile Dyes. IIOAB J, 3(5), 1-6.
Rani, B., Kumar, V., Singh, J., Bisht, S., Teotia, P., Sharma, S., & Kela, R. (2014). Bioremediation of Dyes by Fungi Isolated From Contaminated Dye Effluent Sites For Bio-Usability. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45(3), 1055-1063.
Senthivelan, T., Kanagaraj, J., Rames Panda, C., & Narayani T. (2019). Screening and Production of A Potential Extracellular Fungal Laccase From Penicillium chrysogenum: Media Optimization By Response Surface Methodology (RSM) And Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). Biotechnology Reports (23), 1-15
Suryawan, I. W. K., Helmy, Q., & Notodarmojo, S. (2018). Textile wastewater treatment: colour and COD removal of reactive black-5 by ozonation. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 106, No. 1, p. 012102). IOP Publishing.
Wijetunga, S., Li, X. F., & Jian, C. (2010). Effect of Organic Load On Decolourization of Textile Wastewater Containing Acid Dyes in Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 177(1-3), 792-798.




Most read articles by the same author(s)