Exploring Job Design as Predictors of Job Performance at A Malaysian Automobile Company


  • Hadijah Iberahim Arshad Ayub Graduate Business School, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor
  • Anis Suraya Shamsul Arshad Ayub Graduate Business School, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor
  • Fara Athira Azhar Arshad Ayub Graduate Business School, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor
  • Zakiah Hanim Aminuddin Arshad Ayub Graduate Business School, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor




Job Enrichment, Job Rotation, Job Enlargement, Job Simplification, Job Design


An organization must initiate an adequate job design for the employees to required job performance. A question arises on how a company could gain high job performance in a particular setting in a dynamic business environment and diverse background. This study examines the influence of four components of job design as predictors to job performance; job enrichment, job rotation, job enlargement, and job simplification. While job design is proven to contribute to high job performance, some literature states its limitations. This study adopted a case study method to investigate issues faced by a leading automobile company in Malaysia. Primary data was collected through a series of interviews and a distribution of questionnaires. A multiple regression model was used to explore the predictors of job performance. It was found that job rotation and job enlargement were significant to job performance, while the insignificant effect of job enrichment and job simplification needs to be reviewed. The results of the analysis were discussed in line with feedback from interviews and related literature. The study contributed to the new understandings on critical factors of job design that influence job performance in the support cluster of a manufacturing company.


Adeyoyin, S. O., Unazi, F. A., Oyewunmi, O. O., Adegun, A. I, & Ayodele, R. O. (2015). Effects of job specialization and departmentalization on job satisfaction among the staff of a Nigerian UIniversity library. Library Philosophy and Practice.
Agarwel, D., Berkel, A. V., & Rea, B. (2015). Simplification of work: The coming revolution. Deloitte Insights. Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com
Aon Hewitt. (2016). Best Employers of Malaysia (2016). Retrieved on 21 July 2019. https://leaderonomics.com/business/aon-best-employers-malaysia-2016
Azeez, R.O. (2016). Job enrichment and work-related attitudes of non-academic staff of selected public universities in Lagos State. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 6(1), 89-104.
Bremen, K. V. (2017). Not all job performance measures are created equal. Retrieved from http://www.selectinternational.com/blog/bid/147366/Not-All-JobPerformance-Measures-are-Created-Equal
Bullock, R. (2013). Job Performance (What it is, what it is not). Retrieved from http://www.scontrino-powell.com/2013/job-performance-what-it-is-what-its-not/
Chieng H. P., Arokiasamy L., & Kassim K. A. A. (2019). Influence of human resource management practices on Malaysian construction organizational performance. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal. 11 (1).
Chung, E. K., Jung, Y., & Song, Y. W. (2017). A moderated mediation model of job stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention for airport security screeners. Journal of Safety Science, (98), 89-97.
Edwards, J.R., Scully, J.A., & Brtek, M.D. (2006) The measurement of work: hierarchical representation of the multimethod job design questionnaire. Personnel Psychology, 52 (2).
Gunlu, E., Aksarayli, M., & Percin, N. S. (2010). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment of hotel managers in Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2(5), 693-717
Guo, J., Chen, J., Fu, J., Ge, X., Chen, M. & Liu, Y. (2015). Structural empowerment, job stress and burnout of nurses in China. Applied Nursing Research.
Harju, L. K., Hakanen, J. J., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2016). Can job crafting reduce job boredom and increase work engagement? A three-year cross-lagged panel study. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 95-96,11-20.
Hill, A.V. (2012). The Encyclopaedia of Operations Management: A Field Manual and Glossary of Operations Management terms and Concepts. FT Press.
Hogan, M. (2016). Employee feedback stats that you need to see. Retrieved from
IBM Global Business Services. (2007). Innovating by simplifying: Seven ways to make things better. Retrieved from https://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/gbs/bus/pdf/g510-7854-00.pdf
Idris, A.N. (2017). Malaysia Labor Productivity Growth Unsatisfactory. The Edge
Communications Sdn. Bhd. Retrieved from http://www.theedgemarkets.com/article/msia-labour-productivity-growthunsatisfactory
Joo, B.K.B., Jeung, C.W., & Yoon, H.J. (2010). Investigating the influences of core self-evaluations, job autonomy, and intrinsic motivation on in-role job performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(4), 353-371.
Jorgensen, M., Davis, K, Kotowski, S., Aedla, P. & Dunning, K. (2005). Characteristics of job rotation in the Midwest US manufacturing sector. Ergonomics, 48(15), 1721-1733.
Lai C. Y. (2018). An analysis on the relationship between job satisfaction and work performance among academic staff in Malaysian private universities. Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 1 (2), 64‐73.
Leach, D.J., Wall, T.D., Rogelberg, S.G., & Jackson, P.R. (2005). Team Autonomy, Performance, and Member Job Strain: Uncovering the Teamwork. KSA Link.
Masrek, M. N. (2013). Exploring the relationship between job design and knowledge productivity: a conceptual framework in the context of Malaysian administrative and diplomatic officers. Journal of Organizational Knowledge and Management, 1-8.
Maymon, Y. K. & Reizer, A. (2017). Supervisors' autonomy support as a predictor of job performance trajectories. Applied Psychology: An International Review.
Morgeson, F. P., & Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 1321–1339. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.6.1321
Onimole, O.S. (2015). Work design, and job satisfaction. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 5 (10) 202-207.
Oparanma, A.O., & Nwaeke, L.I. (2015). Impact of job rotation on organizational performance. British Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 7(3), 183-187.
Ortega, J. (2001). Job rotation as a learning mechanism. Management of Science. 47(10), 1361-1370.
Ost, B. & Schiman, J. C. (2017). Workload and teacher effort. Economics of Education Review.
Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS Survival Manual 6th Edition: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. New York, US: McGraw Hill Education
Parker, S.K. (2014). Beyond motivation: job and work design for development, health, ambidexterity, and more. The Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 661-691.
Parker, S.K. (2015). Wiley Encyclopaedia of Management. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118785317.weom0500445
Raza, M.A. & Nawaz, M.M. (2011). Impact of job enlargement on employees’ job satisfaction, motivation, and organizational commitment: evidence from the public sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2(18), 268-273.
Reid, R. D., & Sanders, N. R. (2010). Operations management: An integrated approach. In 4th Edition. Asia: Wiley.
Richardson, A., Douglas, M., Shuttler, R. & Hagland, M.R. (2003). Critical Care Staff Rotation: Outcomes of a Survey and Pilot Study. Nursing in Critical Care. 8(2).
Robiolo, G., & Grane, D. (2014). Do Agile Methods Increase Productivity and Quality? American Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 3(1), 1-11.
Rojas, E. (2017). The advantages and disadvantages of specialization in employees. Bizfluent. Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/info-12071907-advantagesdisadvantages-specialization-employees.html.
Saleem, S., Shaheen, W.A. & Saleem, R. (2012). The impact of job enrichment and job enlargement on employee satisfaction keeping employee performance as intervening variable: A Correlational Study from Pakistan and Kuwait. Journal of Production Research, 26(2), 267-281.
Sani, A. (2013). Role of procedural justice, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction on job performance: the mediating effects of organizational citizenship behaviour. International Journal of Business and Management. 8(15). 57-67.
Santos, R. E. S., Silva, F. Q. B., Magalhaes, C. V. C., & Monteiro, C. V. F. (2016). Building a theory of job rotation in software engineering from an instrumental case study. International Conference on Software Engineering, 971-981.
Sawhney, R. (2013). Implementing labor flexibility: a missing link between acquired labor flexibility and plant performance. Journal of Operations Management, 31, 98-108.
Selden, S., Schimmoeller, L., & Thompson, R. (2013). The influence of high
performance work systems on voluntary turnover of new hires in US State Governments. Personnel Review, 42(3), 300-323.
Sonnentag, S., Volmer, J., & Spychala, A. (2010). Job Performance. The SAGE
Handbook of Organizational Behavior,1,427-447.
The Star Online. (2018). Malaysia’s Labor Productivity Up 3.6%. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2018/02/23/malaysias-2017labour-productivity-up-36/
Vozza, S. (2017). Why employees at Apple and Google are more productive. Fast Company. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/3068771/howemployees-at-apple-and-google-are-more-productive
Wan, H. C., Downey, L. A. & Stough, C. (2014). Understanding non-work presenteeism: Relationships between emotional intelligence, boredom, procrastination, and job stress. Personal and Individual Differences, 65, 86-90.
Yperen, N.W.V., Wortler, B., & Jonge, K.M.M.D. (2016). Workers’ intrinsic work motivation when job demands are high: the role of need for autonomy and perceived opportunity for blended working. Computers in Human Behavior, 60(2016), 179-184.
Zainudin, Muhamad Izzuddin; Rashid, Muhammad Shawal Abdul; Murugeesan, Yokananthini; Che Zainal, Che Nur Amalina S. & Malek, Safrena Noreen Abd. (2019). Islamic working environment, organizational commitment and employees’s job satisfaction and performance in Malaysia service industry: a conceptual paper. Global Business & Management Research. Special Issue, 11 (1,) 436-445.