Modeling Workplace Incivility as a Social Process Towards Sustainable Workforce in the Malaysian Context

Authors

  • S.K. Musairah
  • Sabiroh Md Sabri
  • Anis Farhana

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24191/ji.v16i1.378

Keywords:

Workplace Incivility, Workplace Mistreatment, Workplace Bullying, Workplace Ostracism, Social Undermining

Abstract

Twenty years since the concept of workplace incivility has been introduced, research has been conducted in a variety of directions. While the literature has been expanding and it has been reported that as many as 96% employees have experienced workplace incivility and 99% have seen it, we still do not know how employees interpret of workplace incivility. Given that such an interpretation of the social process can affect the future thought and behavior of people, this information is important to understand workplace incivility beyond behavioral description. Although we have a comprehensive conceptual understanding of workplace incivility, without understanding the employees’ beliefs about incivility, we cannot effectively develop an integrative model of workplace incivility. The aim of this study is to develop a model on workplace incivility as a social process that includes interaction during and after the occurrence of incivility at the workplace. In addition, this research also aims to create awareness about workplace incivility; as well as employees’ preferences on how to address incivility at work and who should handle it. This qualitative study will investigate workplace incivility to understand incivility from the perspective of employees, refine the theoretical understanding of workplace incivility construct, and collecting data to develop the integrative model of workplace incivility. Employees will be asked to answer open-ended survey questions about the characteristics of workplace incivility and questions about why it happens. Responses will be analyzed with the phenomenological method. This research can also ease the development of practical strategies to manage and prevent workplace incivility. Therefore, the findings of this study can serve as a basis for specific prevention and intervention techniques that can be built in the future. This is because, it is important to uncover effective strategies to manage workplace incivility to improve employee well-being, which in turn would influence organizational performance.

References

Al-Zyoud, M. F., & Mert, İ. S. (2019). Does employees’ psychological capital buffer the negative effects of incivility? EuroMed Journal of Business. https://doi.org/10.1108/EMJB-03-2018-0021
Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? the spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1999.2202131
Anjum, A., & Ming, X. (2018). Combating toxic workplace environment: An empirical study in the context of Pakistan. Journal of Modelling in Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/JM2-02-2017-0023
Aquino, K., & Thau, S. (2009). Workplace Victimization: Aggression from the Target’s Perspective. Annual Review of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163703
Blake, R., & Mouton, J. (1967). The managerial grid in three dimensions. In Training & Development Journal.
Bowling, N. A., & Beehr, T. A. (2006). Workplace harassment from the Victim’s perspective: A theoretical model and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.998
Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.6.1.64
Cortina, Lilia M., & Magley, V. J. (2009). Patterns and Profiles of Response to Incivility in the Workplace. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014934
Doshy, P. V, & Wang, J. (2014). Workplace Incivility: What Do Targets Say About It? American Journal of Management.
Elliott, G. P., Davenport, N., & Distler, S. R. (1999). Mobbing, emotional Abuse in the American Workplace. Iowa, Civil Society Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1108/jocm.2000.13.4.401.3
Ghosh, R. (2017). Workplace Incivility in Asia- How do we take a Socio-Cultural Perspective? Human Resource Development International.
Hershcovis, M. S. (2011). “Incivility, social undermining, bullying...oh my!”: A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.689
Lutgen-Sandvik, P., Namie, G., & Namie, R. (2009). Workplace bullying: Causes, consequences, and corrections. In Destructive Organizational Communication: Processes, Consequences, and Constructive Ways of Organizing. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203928554
Miner, K. N., Diaz, I., Wooderson, R. L., McDonald, J. N., Smittick, A. L., & Lomeli, L. C. (2018). A workplace incivility roadmap: Identifying theoretical speedbumps and alternative routes for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000093
Namie, G., & Namie, R. (2009). The bully at work: What you can do to stop the hurt and reclaim your dignity on the job. Sourcebooks, Inc.
Pearson, C. M., & Porath, C. L. (2011). On the nature, consequences and remedies of workplace incivility: No time for “nice”? Think again. Academy of Management Perspectives. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2005.15841946
Pearson, Christine M., Andersson, L. M., & Wegner, J. W. (2001). When workers flout convention: A study of workplace incivility. Human Relations. https://doi.org/10.1177/00187267015411001
Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2010). The Cost of Bad Behavior. Organizational Dynamics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2009.10.006
Porath, C., & Pearson, C. (2013). The price of incivility. In Harvard Business Review. https://doi.org/10.2469/dig.v43.n2.32
Rahim, M. A. (1983). A measure of styles of handling interpersonal conflict. Academy of Management Journal. Academy of Management. https://doi.org/10.2307/255985
Rahim, M. Afzalur, & Magner, N. R. (1995). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Styles of Handling Interpersonal Conflict: First-Order Factor Model and Its Invariance Across Groups. Journal of Applied Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.1.122
Reich, T. C., & Hershcovis, M. S. (2015). Observing workplace incivility. Journal of Applied Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036464
Samosh, J. (2019). What is Workplace Incivility? An Investigation of Employee Relational Schemas. Organization Management Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/15416518.2019.1604197
Schilpzand, P., De Pater, I. E., & Erez, A. (2016). Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1976
Sorenson, R. L., Morse, E. A., & Savage, G. T. (1999). A test of the motivations underlying choice of conflict strategies in the dual-concern model. International Journal of Conflict Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb022817
Yang, L. Q., Caughlin, D. E., Gazica, M. W., Truxillo, D. M., & Spector, P. E. (2014). Workplace mistreatment climate and potential employee and organizational outcomes: A meta-analytic review from the target’s perspective. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036905

Downloads

Published

2021-01-26