Jurnal Intelek //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main <p><strong>Jurnal Intelek (ISSN 2231-7716/E-ISSN 2682-9223),</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>the official journal of Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis Branch, is a peer-reviewed and open-access journal.</p> <p>It is a <strong>single-blind refereed journal</strong> and bi-annually published in <strong>February</strong> and <strong>August.&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>With effect from January 2020, Jurnal Intelek publishes articles related but not limited to the area of <strong>“Innovation and Technology in Management”</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>Jurnal Intelek accepts all types of manuscripts (research papers, literature papers, technical papers, conceptual papers and general views). Manuscripts from disciplines such as Organizational Behaviour,&nbsp;Leadership Management,&nbsp;Marketing Management,&nbsp;Information Management,&nbsp; Strategic Management,&nbsp;Human Resource Management, Performance Management,&nbsp;Quality Management,&nbsp;Intellectual Property Management,&nbsp;Educational Management,&nbsp;Sports Management as well as Health and Fitness Management are welcomed.</p> <p>For a guide on how to submit articles to <strong>Jurnal Intelek</strong>, please refer to our websites at&nbsp;<a href="http://jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/about/submissions">http://jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/about/submissions</a></p> Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis en-US Jurnal Intelek 2231-7716 Entrepreneur Resilience: How Do Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Basic Psychological Needs Influence It? The Effect of COVID-19 on Malaysia's Small and Medium Enterprises //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/388 <p><em>The latest COVID-19 pandemic has affected industries worldwide, impacting virtually every industry and business field. Small and medium-sized businesses, in particular, have been hard hit due to a lack of funding and skills. The current study attempted to examine the impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and basic psychological needs on entrepreneur resilience among SMEs in Malaysia during the critical period of COVID-19. This integrated two-theory analysis article presents the findings of social cognitive theory and self-determination theory as one of the contributions to the body of knowledge in describing the relationship between a construct within the research context. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed based on the proposed framework.</em></p> <p> </p> Dalili Izni Shafie Salmi Mohd Isa Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 1 10 10.24191/ji.v16i2.388 Revisiting the Issues of Co-Branding //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/391 <p><em>In the maturing Malaysian market environment, co-branding is becoming a more common type of growth strategy. Despite being a scheme that could drive companies dedicated to it, some problems emerged tainting the scheme's original goals. Via searches in online databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, and ProQuest ABI/ INFORM Collection, this paper identified related studies published between 1994 and 2019. This search strategy yielded 22 literatures that meet the conclusion requirements. Four patterns of co-branding issues in the hospitality industry which are management, marketing, product and service, and customer were found using content analysis.</em></p> Nur Syuhaada Kharil Anuar Izhar Hafifi Zainal Abidin Azlina Samsudin Azahar Adzmy Luqmanul Hakim Zulkornain Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 11 19 10.24191/ji.v16i2.391 The Issues and Challenges Faced by Malay Cuisine in the Foreign Market //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/393 <p><em>The traditional food of a culture in a society is continuously inherited from the old generation to the new generation. The traditional element is an in-depth understanding of the function of each material, techniques of preparation, and the practice in our daily cooking. This understanding in the form of preparation, meal preparation, tips, use of certain equipment, and raw materials are mysteries difficult to be unravelled. The Malay cultural heritage food is an integral asset among Malaysians in general and the Malay race in particular. Malay cuisine is one of the special and unique blended of many traditions from around the region. However, when Malay culture and cuisine are introduced to other countries, they faced certain hurdles and challenges. This study investigates the issues and challenges faced by Malay cuisine in the foreign market. The points in question are, 1) Why are Malay cuisine difficult to be exported to other countries</em> 2) <em>Why Malay cuisine is less popular than cuisines from other countries? 3) What are the factors that make foods from a country of origin can be successfully exported? These issues and challenges will be parsed and discussed based on the existing written collection. Recommendations will be made on the mechanisms that enable the success of Malay cuisine food to be commercialized abroad, as well as future research examining the success factors of traditional food exported abroad.</em></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Rahman Abdullah Aniza Arifin Azlina Samsudin Sabaianah Bachok Harnizam Zahari Copyright (c) 2021 Aniza Arifin, Rahman Abdullah, Azlina Samsudin, Sabaianah Bachok, Harnizam Zahari http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 20 28 10.24191/ji.v16i2.393 Culinary Students’ Career Intention in the Hospitality Industry: The Importance of the Work Environment During Practical Training //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/395 <p>T<em>he main objective of this study is to examine the importance of work environment during students’ practical training toward students’ career intention in the hospitality industry. This study uses a quantitative method through the distribution of self-administrated questionnaire surveys. Convenience sampling was selected from 159 culinary arts students at UiTM Cawangan Terengganu Kampus Dungun (UiTMCTKD). This sampling design was selected due to its high efficiency. The students had completed their practical training 2 weeks prior to data collection. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to interpret the data. Findings from this study revealed that work environment influences students’ career intention toward pursuing employment in the hospitality industry after graduation.</em></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: <em>Work Environment, Culinary, Career Intention, Practical Training, Hospitality Industry</em></p> Siti Nurhanifah Sulong Norhaya Hanum Mohamad Siti Nor Fadillah Ahmad Shariff Aniza Arifin Malisa Sahila Abdul Manap Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 29 36 10.24191/ji.v16i2.395 Consumers' Intention Towards Online Food Ordering and Delivery Service //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/396 <p><em>Online food ordering and delivery service are the platforms that provide a system and service to the consumer to order and buy food products from foodservice or restaurant operators. The service is an up-and-coming trend among Millennials and the trend has ballooned with the introduction of movement control order (MCO) due to the pandemic COVID-19. The consumer’s demand towards online food ordering and delivery service has increased markedly due to the prohibition of dine-in at restaurant premises. This study focuses on highlighting the factors that influence consumer’s intention to use online food ordering and delivery service. The survey questionnaires were distributed among 384 respondents that represent the customers of restaurants in Shah Alam, Selangor. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that usefulness, ease of use, and consumer’s enjoyment are the factors that influence consumer’s intention to use online food ordering service and conclusively, usefulness is the most significant factor that affects consumer’s intention to order food via online food ordering and delivery service. The findings from this study are beneficial for foodservice or restaurant operators in improving their businesses and staying competitive. Recommendations for future studies are included based on the findings of this study.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>consumer intention, consumer demands, online food ordering, service, restaurant operators</em></p> Nur Amanina Idris Mohamad Amiruddin Mohamad Amir Manshoor Norhaya Hanum Mohamad Haslina Che Ngah Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 37 47 10.24191/ji.v16i2.396 Assessing Consumers’ Behavior Towards Food Waste in Pahang, Malaysia //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/399 <p><em>Food waste refers to food spoilage and losses that happen in the process the of food supply chain. The occurrence of waste could happen intentionally or accidentally, and towards the end, it can impact others. In this situation, consumer behaviour plays an important role in food waste management. By identifying types of behaviour that influence food waste behaviour in order to improve consumer behaviour, it can lead to success in waste management. This research used the quantitative approach to measure consumers behaviour in Kuantan and self-administered surveys were used to collect data. The survey was distributed in Kuantan’s main areas such as shopping malls, tourist attractions and higher educational institutions. Online platforms were also used to collect data via Google Form on Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp. Data analysis was conducted to solve the research objectives, questions, and to examine the hypotheses. The data was analysed by using SPSS (version 20) (SPSS, Inc.). All the questionnaires were returned and the data was then successfully collected and gathered. In total, 98 respondents responded via Google form and 302 respondents responded via hard copy in Kuantan. Based on the result, it shows that the subjective norm and attitude are not predictors of consumer food waste behaviour whereas perceived behavioural control displays a significant relationship with the dependent variables. Additionally, this study is limited to research that is dependent on self-reported data in Kuantan only. Further research on actual food waste by consumers, and how to prevent and reduce food waste in Malaysia is necessary to minimize waste that is sent to landfills. Hence, this study concludes that food waste is a major problem in Malaysia that ends up in  landfills as food is not recycled properly.</em></p> Sara Nabila Ismail Ainnin Sofea Azeman Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 48 59 10.24191/ji.v16i2.399 Students’ Intention Towards Entrepreneurship as a Career: A Case of University Students //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/401 <p><em>Apart of the total unemployed in Malaysia are university graduates, while close to half the graduates of public universities are working in mismatched occupations, totally unrelated to their formal training. To overcome this issue, the best solutions is involvement in entrepreneurial. Therefore, this study aims to examine the student intention towards entrepreneurship. The data were collected from questionnaires that have been distributed to diploma and degree students in UiTM Terengganu. The questionnaires were tested on 300 respondents. The study found that the social environment and knowledge management are significant with student intention. The result for all independent variables shows positive relationship with dependent variable. </em></p> Kartini Mat Rashid Azlina Shamsudin Nasiha Abdullah Norchahaya Johar Zuraini Jusoh Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 60 69 10.24191/ji.v16i2.401 A Review of Organizational Relationship Quality, Trust, Commitment and Lecturers’ Perceived Performance in Institution of Higher Learning //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/402 <p><em>As a result of globalization and the influence of working remotely, it has become more important to develop high-quality relationships in the organization for more cohesive teamwork among employees. High cohesiveness and synergy among employees will help organizations to achieve their goals. Management needs to understand how to interact with employees in ways that boost job satisfaction and engagement as perceived by employees. Many scholars agree that organizational performance is an indicator of how well an organization attains its desired goals. In addition to the roles played by the managers and superiors, organizational performance is also dependent upon the synergy of each individual employee's performance and their teamwork. Whether it is private or government agencies, service or manufacturing, employee performance is very important. In this paper, we hope to discuss and describe the relationship between three elements of Organizational Relationship Quality with the lecturer's performance. The dimensions of Organizational Relationship Quality include Organizational Trust, Organizational Commitment and Organizational Relational Norms. In addition, we hope to better understand the relationship and how the dimensions of relational norms are associated with a lecturer’s performance in institutions of higher learning.</em></p> Zainuddin Zakaria Nik Fakrulhazri Nik Hassan Nazlin Emieza Ngah Nurmuslimah Kamilah Abdullah Rusnah Ismail Elisabet Siahaan Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 70 78 10.24191/ji.v16i2.402 Teaching and Learning (T&L) Among University Students During the Movement Control Order (MCO) //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/409 <p><em>Both academic institutions and schools were required to conduct online learning during the Movement Control Order (MCO) period. This study aims to identify Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Terengganu’s branch students’ perceptions of teaching and learning (T&amp;L) during MCO. The preferred technology framework for T&amp;L during the MCO period is also identified in this report. Furthermore, this study identifies the factors that influenced the choice of said application. The respondents were 256 UiTM Terengganu students from eight specialisations. Data were gathered through the use of online questionnaires administered through Google Forms. According to the findings, students had a generally positive attitude toward the online learning process but were less satisfied with its effectiveness. In terms of application selection, the university’s teaching and learning platform, Ufuture system, comes in first, followed by Google Classroom, Telegram, and WhatsApp. This study also discussed the strategies for improving the effectiveness of technology utilisation to optimise e-learning.</em></p> Nor Hamiza Mohd Ghani Sholehah Abdullah Mohd Khairi Ismail Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 79 88 10.24191/ji.v16i2.409 The Customers’ Consumption Trends on Healthy Ice Cream //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/419 <p>Ice cream is a favorite dessert for many societies around the world. Eating ice can increase the feeling of fun, enjoyment as well as happiness to individuals. As such, not only it is loved by the youngsters, it is also loved by the elders. A good average calorie for an ice cream is approximately 200 kcal/100g. However, adding more sugar into the ice cream for consumption beyond the limit may cause several health diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and even organ failures. In Malaysia, its ice cream market had increased from RM 795.9 million in 2017 to 3.43 per cent in 2018. Putting the increasing trend and health risks into the equation, in order to ensure that ice cream remains enjoyable by people of all age groups and health backgrounds, the creation of a healthy ice cream formula is necessary. This empirical study investigated customer consumption trend on healthy ice cream, assessed customer perception and proposed marketing strategy to promote the consumption of healthy ice cream. This study had successfully developed customer consumption trends profile on healthy ice cream and assisted local marketers to design marketing strategy on healthy ice cream “brands” in Malaysia.</p> Nik Fakrulhazri Nik Hassan Noorazlina Ahmad Abd Razak Abu Kassim Yusnita Hamzah Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 89 98 10.24191/ji.v16i2.419 A Framework for Exploring the Stage of Public Response on Social Media Sites (SMSs) Towards Social Enterprise in Malaysia //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/420 <p><em>Social enterprise is popular among researchers because of its contribution and prominence in society. Many entrepreneurs seek to create ventures that not only yield a profit but also add value to society. However, previous studies have found that the level of public awareness is still low and that the existence of social enterprises is still at early stage. Thus, they suggest the use of social media as an alternative way to attract attention and create public awareness on social enterprise in Malaysia. To this end, this concept paper seeks to explore the level of public responses on existing social enterprise in Malaysia and discover the role of social media in terms of enhancing social enterprise awareness and promoting social enterprise. The three levels of public responses to be used in this concept paper are ‘aware’, ‘interested’ and ‘engaged’. Data will be retrieved from social media (Facebook and Twitter). Essentially, this concept paper is an attempt to provide first insight regarding the level of social enterprise awareness in Malaysia and to recognize the vital elements in social media sites. In order to enhance social enterprise awareness, this concept paper proposes storytelling canvas as a support tool. For data analysis or data management, this paper will use SPSS and NVivo to elaborate the framework and flow of data collection in order to measure the ability of social media to significantly enhance social enterprise awareness in Malaysia. It will also suggest the framework for related study in the future.</em></p> Nik Fakrulhazri Nik Hassan Noorazlina Ahmad Abd Razak Abu Kassim Nur Raihana Mohd Sallem Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 99 106 10.24191/ji.v16i2.420 GRAB Tutor Management System with SMS Notification //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/421 <p><em>Tutoring service is essential for students who require extra academic guidance in learning, especially in primary and secondary education levels. The common problems encountered by any students are the difficulties in finding the suitable tutors based on their preferred choice. The current existing web applications are still lack of responsive elements where they just only provide the fill-in form to search for the tutors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to address the inherent issue in finding suitable tutor match among the students and teachers by utilizing responsive filtering feature and SMS notification technology. The inclusion of these features is crucial to ensure that both parties informed on the appointment arrangement and status. The system known as GRAB Tutor Management System is targeted the secondary students especially the SPM candidates. This study adapts and simplifies System Development Life Cycle methodology into Three-Phase Model in designing and developing the system. The three phases are analysis, development, and evaluation phase. Each phase carries specific activities to accomplish the aim of this study and successfully delivered the proposed solution. GRAB Tutor Management System undergone a series of testing to evaluate its functionalities and acceptability. Functionality testing involved four expert and novice users, meanwhile user acceptance testing was conducted with 30 participants of secondary schoolteachers and students. The functionality test result revealed that all features are well functioned and successfully delivered. The user acceptance testing result indicates positive acceptance with the overall mean score is 4.64, which shown that the participants are agreed that this system is acceptable, easy to use and useful. It is proven that this study has successfully delivered a web-based Grab Tutor Management System with SMS Notifications that is useful for the tutors and students</em></p> Siti Zulaiha Ahmad Zatil Syamimi Mohd Zamri Umi Hanim Mazlan Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 107 119 10.24191/ji.v16i2.421 An Examination of the Factors Involving Students’ Acceptance of Online Educational Games //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/410 <p><em>Educators all over the world are scrambling to develop new and more advanced methods of teaching through the use of technology, with the common goal of engaging students in classrooms. Furthermore, the new generation, which grew up with the internet, video games, and online gaming, prefers a technology-infused approach to teaching and learning. They are no longer interested in the traditional method of classroom lectures. Educational games (EG) have also become a hot topic in the academic community. The goal of this paper is to look into the factors that influence students’ acceptance of online education. Based on the literature review’s discussions and arguments, it is possible to conclude that all factors influence students’ acceptance of online EG.</em></p> Norlaila Ibrahim Marha Abdol Ghapar Azlina Shamsudin Nik Fakrulhazri Nik Hassan Norchahaya Johar Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 120 128 10.24191/ji.v16i2.410 A Comparative Study on Students’ Performance in Entrepreneurial Education Using Face-To-Face and Online Distance Learning (ODL) Instructional Approaches //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/422 <p><em>Malaysia’s Ministry of Higher Education announced in early March 2020 that all universities’ teaching and learning (TL) processes must be conducted entirely online until the end of the year to prevent Covid-19 from spreading. This change has drastically altered the way teachers teach and students learn, and as a result, the impact on both lecturers and students has been enormous. This study aimed to compare students’ performance in the Introduction to Entrepreneurship (ENT300) subject at UiTM Cawangan Terengganu when using an online learning approach as against a traditional face-to-face approach. Many scholars agreed that the face-to-face approach is more effective and gives students more fulfilment than the online method because students prefer to see and hold paper-based reading material and the satisfaction derived from experiencing the lessons live. This descriptive study data was taken from two different learning approaches, face to face and online distance learning (ODL) classes, and the results showed that students’ performance is better when lessons are conducted face to face, proving that the difference in teaching and learning approach has an effect on the students’ grades.</em></p> Nazlin Emieza Ngah Azlina Shamsudin Marha Abdol Ghapar Norlaila Ibrahim Rusnah Ismail Norchahaya Johar Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 129 137 10.24191/ji.v16i2.422 E-Hailing Service Satisfaction: A Case Study of Students in a Higher Education Institution in Perlis, Malaysia //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/423 <p><em>E-hailing is an online transportation administration recognised as the travellers’ top pick in the transportation industry, including collaboration among clients and service providers. As clients now are more informed and can decide to choose any service provider they prefer, the e-hailing companies are obligated to fulfil and offer better support to their numerous clients, particularly for e-hailing administration. Keeping up consumer loyalty is vital for e-hailing’s specialist organisation to support upper hands. This research aims to investigate the role of safety and security, price, convenience and accessibility and whether they affect e-hailing service satisfaction. This research adopted a quantitative research methodology using a survey approach. Data was collected from 276 e-hailing services customers from higher learning institutions using an online survey. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS), and a few analysis were carried out, such as descriptive analysis, correlations and regression analysis. The results have shown that all factors have somehow affected e-hailing service satisfaction. This result will provide understanding to ridesharing service providers and can be used to improve their services by looking at the most and least influencing customer satisfaction. In the future, researchers could include diverse variables to study the customer satisfaction of e-hailing services in Malaysia.</em></p> Mohamad Niza Md Nor Sabiroh Md Sabri Najiah Filzah Mat Isa Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 138 150 10.24191/ji.v16i2.423 Covid-19, Workplace Challenges //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/418 <p><em>Workplace now, workplace then, the new normal </em><em>is a conceptual paper written to enlightened </em><em>how organizations monitor employees' work performance from home as versus working in the office as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The objective of this article was to </em><em>determine how organizations are able to measure the performance of their employees when they are working from home. Secondly, to evaluate how organizations are able to monitor virtual workload as versus traditional workload.&nbsp; And finally, through scrutinizing the new workplace normal articles, the author derived the third objective which is to determine how the employees balanced their work and family disputes during the Covid 19 pandemic</em>.<em> Several related articles were scrutinized to demonstrate the current workplace scenario as opposed to the traditional practices.&nbsp; At the end of the article, we proposed monitoring measures and how employees' performance can be improved during the Covid19 pandemic. Flexibility in goal setting, teamwork, and </em><em>regular performance feedback will psychologically lead to positivity in work performance. Whilst, social support, job autonomy, workload, and monitoring would reduce employees' procrastination in carrying out their virtual workload.&nbsp; And finally, a </em>360° <em>social support, flexible schedule, mental therapy, and boundary management able to overcome work and mental stress thus create a healthy working environment.</em></p> Azian Abd Ghani Zainuddin Zakaria Siti Najihah Amir Hamzah Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 151 161 10.24191/ji.v16i2.418 Sustainable Management of the Coastal Water pH of Pulau Tuba Using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) Method //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/428 <p><em>The purpose of this research is to evaluate the precision of the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) to estimate and map the coastal water pH for the sustainability of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi, Kedah. 30 sampling points have been set up during two sampling activities in November 2018. The pH meter has been calibrated and lowered to 1 meter below the water surface to measure the reading of pH. The development of the spatial model was developed using the spatial analyst tool available in ArcGIS Software. Several types of statistical analyses were carried to compare the observed and predicted value of pHs such as correlation analysis, regression analysis, and error analysis. Accuracy assessment was carried later after the transformation of a spatial model into a surface map. The research found that the IDW method successfully interpolated the pH readings. The research found that there is a strong positive correlation between the observed and predicted values. For error analysis, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were recorded at 0.033 and 0.044</em>,<em> respectively. After the transformation of the spatial model to the surface map, the accuracy of the map is recorded at 81.25%. The map produced can be used by residents and local government for social and economic development and protection of biodiversity at the coastal water of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi, Kedah.</em></p> Sharir Aizat Kamaruddin Khairul Naim Abd. Aziz Muhammad Akmal Roslani Zamzila Erdawati Zainol Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 162 174 10.24191/ji.v16i2.428 Managing Quality for Job Performance: Is Paternalistic Leadership Behavior an Alternative to Influence Trust? //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/429 <p><em>Successful leaders play a complex role. Leaders may manipulate followers to accomplish goals since they have authority and power to influence. Interestingly, Paternalistic leadership has qualities of attributes not only on the reactions of dyadic systems and followers but also subordinates’ attitudes and behavior. Paternalistic leadership flows from a particular cultural context. A family environment is created by paternalistic leaders in the management system. They display 'goodwill' and act as a leader in family approaches towards staff. Currently, there is no specifically conducted gender-based research at the university level specifically to analyze the perceptions of paternalistic leadership on job performance and trust among the staff of the university. Therefore, this study focused primarily on the perceptions of paternalistic leadership behavior among staff members at the university level. A total of 254 respondents from UiTM Perlis staffs (male, n = 125; female n = 129) from four departments [Student Affairs, academic affairs, administration, and academic staff (lecturers)] completed a questionnaire pack assessing the study variables. Results revealed that (i) there are significant correlations in the dimension of paternalistic leadership, job performance, and trust perceived by staff at UiTM Perlis Branch, (ii) there are no significant differences in the dimension of paternalistic leadership, job performance, and trust between gender by staff at UiTM Perlis Branch. In conclusion, a leader who can create a better work environment can enhance staff competencies and influence trust in them.</em></p> Ahmad Fikri Mohd Kassim Norizatul Mazni Razali Norfaezah Mohd Rosli Ellail Ain Mohd Aznan Poy Hua Khor Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 175 183 10.24191/ji.v16i2.429 The Usage of Social Media: Visibility Elements and Business Growth Among Entrepreneurs’ Society in Terengganu //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/430 <p><em>The aim of the study is to analyse the relationship between visibility elements using social media that contribute most to business growth among Entrepreneurs Society in Terengganu. A questionnaire consisting of seven sections (A-G) was distributed to collect the needed information: Section A, the respondents’ demographic background; Section B, the construction of business page; section C, the establishment of community; section D, content information management; section E, analysing customer behaviour is studied; section F, market optimization opportunities; and section G, business growth. The population for this research is 87 entrepreneurs from the Entrepreneurs Society in Terengganu and from that amount 76 respondents had successfully participated. The Statistical Package for the Social Science version 25 is used to examine the result of this study. Research has revealed that the established reliability of the measurement is very strong. Cronbach Alpha is a coefficient correlation that indicates how well all the items of the average in a set of positive correlation to one another. Result of the reliability of analysis for business growth shows that Cronbach Alpha are the right tools to used. The mean of value for all variables are strong. The Pearson correlation for the relationship of business growth with construction of business page, establishment of community, content information management, and analysing customer behaviour are positive relationship with significant value of P&lt;0.05. For conclusion, for hypothesis one until hypothesis four, the construction of business page, establishment of community, content management information, and analysing customer behaviour have significant relationship with business growth. Researchers found out that four hypotheses are accepted, and one is rejected which is the measurement of business growth. Lastly, the researchers are hoping that all entrepreneurs and business organization can gain benefit from this study.</em></p> Khalid Amin Mat Siti Rapidah Omar Ali Nur Shafini Mohd Said Nasiha Abdullah Muhammad Hafiz Husain Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 184 193 10.24191/ji.v16i2.430 An Investigation of Fitness Analysis and Risk Analysis: A Systematic Review //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/431 <p><em>Risk analysis consists of three elements which are risk management, risk communication, and risk assessment. The risk occurs in many ways and conditions while exercising mostly in the fitness industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study aims to examine the currently available literature that focuses on risk analysis and fitness facilities in the fitness industry. A comprehensive survey of online data source (Scopus and Web of Science All Collection), as well as conference proceeding of possibly related papers, were analyzed. The search was limited to research that was published in English and had complete text access. All of these resources were gone through, using key search words and equivalents for fitness facilities, fitness centre with risk analysis, risk management, risk communication and risk assessment. 33 studies were record screened from 94 total number of records after duplicate and only a few studies were accepted for review which are eight theses was selected in qualitative synthesis and seven studies selected in the quantitative synthesis. The data were sort from the two published studies (Scopus and Web of Science). Results found that 15 dissertations and/or theses were submitted to systematic quality analysis. The findings systematically evaluate cross-sectional observation-based studies indicating risk analysis is critical for maintaining the fitness industry's surroundings safe and pristine when participating in any physical activity, particularly at a fitness facility. Analyses suggest that the assumption that risk analysis has a significant influence on the impression of being able to control future accidents. In conclusion, applying the management of risk analysis in fitness facilities is important in the fitness industry.</em></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Ahmad Fikri Mohd Kassim Ellail Ain Mohd Aznan Amira Farzana Abdul Kahar Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 194 205 10.24191/ji.v16i2.431 The Meaning of Work and Career as Calling: A Model to Determine Millennial's Career Satisfaction //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/408 <p><em>This research aims to examine and analyze the role of the meaning of work and career as a calling to determine career satisfaction in the millennial workforce. A career as a calling is an opportunity to create social work in the work environment. It is correlated to life satisfaction and meaning, career decisions, self-identity, and positive effectiveness. Meanwhile, the meaning of work for millennials is about the meaning of life. The millennial generation prefers to get freedom according to their characteristics and passions. Job satisfaction lies in self-actualization at work that does not only seek financial stability. The research was conducted using quantitative methods</em><em>, </em><em>data were collected from questionnaire and analyzed using partial least square (PLS). The sample population of this study comprised 150 millennial lecturers of Islamic universities in Semarang Indonesia. The criteria were those aged 20-40 years old with a minimum working period of one year.</em> <em>The results showed that digital fluency and spiritual work value have a positive and significant effect on the meaning of work and career as a calling. Meanwhile, the meaning of work and career as a calling has a positive and significant effect on career satisfaction.</em></p> Selly Septianingsih Olivia Fachrunnisa Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 206 217 10.24191/ji.v16i2.408 Getting to Know from Our Millennials Students: Different Perception of Career Expectations and Career Goals //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/427 <p><em>Research on career expectations and career goals was becoming a concern for practitioners in the HRM field. Career is important because it is a need that must be cultivated in an employee, to be able to boost their performance. Meanwhile, based on their characteristics, employees have different views about career expectations and goals. This study aims to analyze career expectations and goals from the perspective of the millennial generation based on gender, achievement and domicile. This study involved 200 students of final semester and measured their perceptions of career expectations as to future employees by using SPSS Two-Sample Independent Mean Test for the average difference test. By using the average difference test, this study found that perceptions of career expectations differ based on gender and achievement. Implication and future research agenda provided for direction of future work.</em></p> Rina Agustina Nurhidayati Nurhidayati Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 218 228 10.24191/ji.v16i2.427 The New Norms and Students’ Motivation in the Pandemic Sphere //jurnalintelek.uitm.edu.my/index.php/main/article/view/432 <p><em>The global pandemic COVID</em><em>-19 has hit the world tremendously and shifted all normal daily routines to a new way of living. Education and knowledge sharing has now been held virtually to prevent the spread of this life-threatening virus. Hence, students nowadays have to cope with so many changes in the execution of their courses and assignments. Aside from this challenge</em><em>, lectures now </em><em>have to be conducted strictly online and the lecturers</em><em> can no</em><em> longer physically be with them to teach face-</em><em>to-</em><em>face as per </em><em>previous practice. Therefore, this study aims to explain the motivational conditions of students when using various media in ODL. The survey has been distributed to 174 numbers of students from one of the </em><em>Higher Learning Institution in East Peninsular Malaysia. The result showed that even students who are </em><em>in worry</em><em>, restless and wanted everything to be </em><em>ended</em><em> immediately, still try their best to perform and to </em><em>gain knowledge through any medium that they can to </em><em>perform their best. </em></p> Nurul Aisyah Awanis Rahim Wan Maziah Wan Ab Razak Ahmad Ismail Mohd Anuar Nurul Aisyah Munirah A. Rahim Copyright (c) 2021 Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perlis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-31 2021-07-31 16 2 229 238 10.24191/ji.v16i2.432